**Spectrochemical Analysis of Copper**

**Name:___________________________________ Section: ___________**

**Partner:__________________________________ Date: ______________**

*Determination of max*

Complete the following tables of absorbance by wavelength:

nm | 400 | 420 | 440 | 460 | 480 | 500 | 520 | 540 | 560 | 580 | 600 |

A |

nm | |||||||||

A |

Create a graph (use **smooth-marked** x-y scatter in Excel) of absorbance (on the *y-axis*) vs. wavelength (on the *x-axis*). Include **ALL** of the above data points. **Label **the wavelength that corresponds to maximum absorption (max) on your graph. Attach a copy of the graph.

Wavelength for maximum absorption (max): ___________

** The Standard Curve **Concentration of standard Cu2+ solution: ___________

Unknown#: ___________

Complete the following table with data from your standard solutions and the unknown dilution.

Tube No. |
1 |
2 |
3 |
4 |
5 |
6 |
7 |
Unk. |

Vol. Cu2+ soln. (mL) | ||||||||

Vol. “en” reagent (mL) | ||||||||

Vol. distilled water (mL) | ||||||||

New Cu2+ conc. (M) | ||||||||

Average Absorbance |

Show all the calculations for Tube 7. Be sure to include calculations for both total volume and concentration.

Create a calibration curve using your standard solution data. In Excel, graph absorbance (on the *y-axis*) vs. concentration of Cu2+ (on the *x-axis*) using the **marked** x-y scatter. Include a trendline (best linear-fit) through the data. Show both the equation and the R2 value for this line on the graph. Attach a copy of the graph.

Calibration curve best-fit equation: ____________________________

*Determination of Unknown Concentration*

Using the best-fit equation from the calibration curve, calculate the concentration of Cu2+ in the unknown sample after dilution (with “en” and distilled water). Then determine the concentration of the unknown before it was diluted and the percent error of your result.

Conc. after dilution (M) |
Conc. before dilution (M) |
Actual Conc. (M) |
% Error |

Show the calculations:

**Preparation for Writing a Formal Report**

The discussion section of a formal report evaluates the data and observations for the experiment (i.e. the results). **TYPE** a **discussion sectio**n for the Spectrochemical Analysis of Copper experiment and attach it to this form. This section should interpret the results in context of the purpose and scientific theory (as presented in the introduction). Both accuracy and precision should also be evaluated. Discuss sources or error and how the experiment could be improved.

**POST LAB QUESTIONS**

1. Absorbance depends on the thickness of the sample size. The cuvettes for most spectrophotometers hold the sample size (“b”) to 1 cm, although they can vary. The molar absorptivity (“a”) is equal to the absorbance of a one-centimeter thick sample of a 1.0 M solution. In this case, “a” has the units L/mol·cm. Absorptivity changes with wavelength and is generally given for the wavelengths corresponding to the maxima in the absorption curve. How is the slope of the calibration curve related to the molar absorptivity?

2. A solution known to contain 0.026 M Cu2+ forms a complex with ethylenediamine that yields an absorbance of 0.37 in a cell of 1.0 cm path length at a selected wavelength.

a. Calculate the molar absorptivity for these conditions.

b. Calculate the concentration of an unknown copper solution with an absorbance of 0.49 under the same conditions.