Evaporation of a Sugar Solution in a Multiple-Effect Evaporator. A triple-effect evaporator with forward feed is evaporating a sugar solution with negligible boiling-point rise (less than 1.0 K, which will be neglected) and containing 5 wt % solids to 25% solids. Saturated steam at 205 kPa abs is being used. The pressure in the vapor space of the third effect is 13.65 kPa. The feed rate is 22 680 kg/h and the temperature 299.9 K. The liquid heat capacity is cp = 4.19 – 2.35x, where cp is in kJ/kg · K and x in wt fraction (K1). The heat-transfer coefficients are U1 = 3123, U2 = 1987, and U3 = 1136 W/m2 · K. Calculate the surface area of each effect if each effect has the same area, and the steam rate.