Question 1 (Compulsory) (30 marks)
a) “Research is a process that has a beginning and an end”. In view of this discuss the major steps in any research process. (15 marks)
b) Discuss the importance and contents of a research proposal. (10 marks)

Question 2(10 marks)
Describe and analyze the differences and similarities between quantitative and qualitative research in terms of:-
a) General framework
b) Analytical objectives
c) Most common question format
d) Most common data format
e) Flexibility in study design

Question 3
a) Describe and analyze the process of sampling. (5 marks)
b) What are the basic considerations in choosing a sampling technique? (8 marks)
c) Discuss the importance of a good research design. (7 marks)

Question 4
State what type of experimental design is employed in each of the following examples. You can use R-X-O notation or the formal name of the design. Brief explanation or interpretation is necessary.
a) The Chaplain of University of Knowledge wants to counsel students on responsible behaviour, especially on drinking. He intends to have a random sample of students fill out a questionnaire on their attitudes towards alcohol, then have them see a film on alcohol abuse, and then have the fill out the questionnaire again to see whether their attitudes have changed. He will do this all in one night, so as to eliminate any threats arising from “history.” If attitudes do change for the better, he will request the Management to require all students to watch the film when it is shown in the University Chapel. (6 marks)
b) A researcher wonders whether regular visits to the dentist prevent cavities. She finds a group of subjects who go to the dentist regularly and compares the number of cavities they have to the number of cavities among subjects who don’t go to the dentist regularly. (6 marks)
c) A school wants to see how effective a new teaching procedure is. All students take an ability test at the beginning of the school year. Some students then volunteer to participate in the new program. At the end of the school year, all students are once again tested, and the scores of those in the program and those not in the program are compared. (8 marks)

Question 5
a) Outline the characteristics of a “good” questionnaire. (6 marks)
b) When is it necessary to “pilot” a questionnaire? (4 marks)
c) Explain the importance of using both Primary and Secondary data in any research process.
(10 marks)