1. A 50-year-old man presents in the emergency department with severe pain and swelling in the right knee. Arthrocentesis is performed and 20 mL of milky synovial fluid is collected. The physician orders a Gram stain, culture, and crystal examination of the fluid, as well as a serum uric acid. She requests that the synovial fluid be saved for possible additional tests.

a. Describe the tubes into which the fluid would be routinely placed.

b. If the patient’s serum uric acid level is elevated, what type of crystals and disorder are probable?

c. Describe the appearance of these crystals under direct and compensated polarized light. d. Why were the Gram stain and culture ordered?