Drying When Radiation, Conduction, and Convection Are Present. A material is granular and wet with water and is being dried in a layer 25.4 mm deep in a batch-tray dryer pan. The pan has a metal bottom having a thermal conductivity of kM = 43.3 W/m · K and a thickness of 1.59 mm. The thermal conductivity of the solid is kS = 1.125 W/m · K. The air flows parallel to the top exposed surface and the bottom metal at a velocity of 3.05 m/s and a temperature of 60°C and humidity H = 0.010 kg H2O/kg dry solid. Direct radiation heat from steam pipes having a surface temperature of 104.4°C falls on the exposed top surface, whose emissivity is 0.94. Estimate the surface temperature and the drying rate for the constant-rate period.