What is the difference between the thickness and effective depth of a given footing?
A 400 mm square concrete column that carries a factored vertical downward load of 450 kN
and a factored moment of 100 kN- m is supported on a 1.5 m square footing. The effective depth
of the concrete in this footing is 500 mm. Compute the ultimate shear force that acts on the
most critical section for two- way shear failure in the footing.