1. Which of the following factors is a likely cause of revolutions or civil wars?

a.       A weak or failed state

b.      An authoritarian government that ignores major demands from citizens

c.       The availability of strong opposition leaders

d.      All of the above

2. Primordial explanations of ethnic confl ict suggest that

a.       ethnic leaders instigate hostilities to serve their own interests

b.      people become hostile when they blame their frustration with economic hardship on competing ethnic groups

c.       ancient hatreds compel ethnic groups to continue fi ghting

d.      None of the above