1. Which of the following are types of cavitation?

a. stable and thermal

b. in vivo and in vitro

c. transient and stable

d. spatial and transient

2. Which of the following displays the lowest inten­sity value in pulsed-wave ultrasound?





3. With a focused transducer, for which of the expo­sures that follow are there no confirmed significant biological effects in mammalian tissue?

a. 1 W/cm2

b. 1 mW/cm2

c. 100 W/cm2

d. 100 mW/cm2

4. The acronym SPPA denotes:

a. spatial pulse–peak average

b. spatial peak–pulse average

c. spatial pulse–pressure average

d. spatial pulse–pulse amplitude

5. Which of the following imaging modalities demon­strates the highest intensity?

a. color Doppler

b. real-time imaging

c. pulsed-wave Doppler

d. continuous-wave Doppler

6. Cleaning of transducers should be performed

a. daily

b. hourly

c. weekly

d. after each patient

7. Plant studies are useful for understanding:

a. the effects on wound healing

b. when focal lesions will occur

c. the thermal effects on living tissues

d. the cavitational effects on living tissues

8. Transient cavitation is most dependent on the:

a. ultrasound pulse

b. size of gas bubble

c. type of contrast agent used

d. expansion rate of the microbubble

9. The study of various factors determining the fre­quency and distribution of diseases in the human community describes:

a. cavitation

b. epidemiology

c. mechanical index

d. biological effects

10. Mechanical index indicates the:

a. likelihood cavitation will occur

b. peak intensity of the sound beam

c. amount of heat absorbed by human tissues

d. likelihood tissue temperature will rise 2° C